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Aug 28, 2011 - Relación entre parámetros de tensiomiografía y potenciales ... 233 Figure 4: File structure in At the Crossroads............................................................. Measuring text difficulty ............................................................................................ Readability formulas measure certain features of the text that can be put into mathematical calculations.

trials, high mountain ascents or flat stages in tour races (Lucía, ... 239 Figure 5: Number of word families and word types in the BNC high-frequency word lists ………………………………………………………………. Rumelhart‘s interactive reading model ............................................... 52 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 54 CHAPTER 3 READABILITY Introduction ....................................................................................................................... The way they work is that the reader can be questioned or tested on something they read and then the material they read can be tested with the formula(s).

Abstract Key words: readability – lexical coverage –reading comprehension – EFL textbooks In Algerian schools, textbooks provide the major if not the only written lexical input for students in classrooms. Brown's Study (1998) ...................................................................................... Such studies would be of some help to many people as the outcome of the study will be corpora to be used as basis for comparison using computer software.

Needless to say, I am solely responsible for all the flaws and mistakes to be found herein. The Miyazaki Study ......................................................................................... Therefore, there is an imperative need for in-depth empirical studies of the existing textbooks in the above context.

Comparison of the lexical coverage of the seven textbooks to standard vocabulary lists have revealed that Algerian students are not learning sufficient, useful and appropriate vocabulary, as Algerian learners are exposed to a low proportion of high frequency words. 254 Table 6: Examples of types of words Excluded from the headword list …..…… Coleman Liau Formula .................................................................................... They will be able to say to what extent the vocabulary of a textbook of a certain level matches the vocabulary of another textbook (how many words in a given syllabus have been covered by the preceding one? They will also be able to know the extent to which the vocabulary of a unit or file within a textbook matches that of another unit or file (how many words in a given unit or file have been covered by the preceding unit or file? The research outcome of this study will help them find out which high frequency words (words which occur most frequently in English) learners don‘t know and determine what students need to learn then include them in the syllabi.

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Last but not the least, my deepest feelings go to my wife who constantly prodded me into working on this research, took on her all the responsibilities of the home in order to set me free me for research and who endured my bad temper when things went wrong. ................................................................................ The dearth of such studies specifically in the area of readability in Algeria, however, reinforces the need and priority for such studies, since these could contribute significantly to the improvement of the quality of instructional material being produced.

The methodology adopted to explore the lexical coveragewas characterised by a multiinstrument computer-based approach involving computer software. GSL: General Service List L1: First language L2: Second language LIH: Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis UWL: The University Word List ii List of Tables Table 1: Middle school textbooks …………………………….………..….……… Computational approaches ......................................................................................... Finally, results will serve as a gauge to Algerian students reading ability.

University of Constantine 2012 PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ALGERIA Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research Ferhat Abbas University, Setif Faculty of Letters and Languages Department of English Language and Literature THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNERS’ LEXICAL COVERAGE AND THE READABILITY LEVELS OF THE ALGERIAN ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS By Saad TORKI Thesis submitted in candidature for the degree of doctorate “ès-sciences” in Applied Linguistics Supervisor: Prof. Another purpose was to provide English teachers and educationalists in general with a means (computer software) for comparing the vocabulary levels of reading materials and textbooks destined to Algerian learners of English in order to determine what the readability and vocabulary levels are, and what additional vocabulary is required for students to reach the 95% rate of comprehension. The Lexile Formula ......................................................................................... This would ultimately assist them with making optimum use of the textbook strong points, and recognizing the shortcomings of reading material, if any.

263 Table 10: New lexical items in middle school textbooks, Books 2, 3, and 4. 265 Table 11: Lexical coverage in middle school textbooks.…………………………. Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Formula.............................................................. Chapter 1: Introduction and Statement of Aims 17 ________________________________________________________________________ To sum up, studies related to vocabulary and to the readability level of the books and the reading levels of students are badly needed in Algeria.

261 Table 9: Overall results: Middle school textbooks comparison …………...……. The Dale-Chall Formula .................................................................................. Researchers: Further research can be carried out relying on the results and corpora of the present study (see the section ―suggestions for further research‖ in this study).

AWL: The General Service List BNC HFWL: British National Corpus High Frequency Word List COBUILD: Collins Birmingham University International Language Database E. 257 Table 8: The distribution of word families in the seven textbooks ………..……… The Gunning Fog Formula .............................................................................. Authors and publishers of graded readers: Authors of graded readers destined to Algerian students of English could exploit the results and data of the present research to match their material with levels of their intended audience.

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