The city was now mainly a garrison and an armoury, for the crown heavily subsidised arms manufacturers in the capital, laying the foundations for the mechanics, engineers, technicians, and entrepreneurs who were to turn Berlin into an industrial powerhouse.
The old defensive walls and moats were now useless, so they were turned down.
In 1701, Elector Frederick III (1688–1701) crowned himself as Frederick I (1701–1713), King in Prussia.
He was mostly interested in decorum: he ordered the building of the castle Charlottenburg in the west of the city.
A large part of the Germanic tribes left the region around 500 AD.
In the 12th century the region came under German rule as part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, founded by Albert the Bear in 1157.
During neolithic times a large number of villages existed in the area.
During the Bronze Age it belonged to the Lusatian culture.
For the time around 500 BC the presence of Germanic tribes can be evidenced for the first time in form of a number of villages in the higher situated areas of today's Berlin.
After the Semnones left around 200 AD, the Burgundians followed.
Berlin is mentioned as a town for the first time in 1251 and Cölln in 1261.